Indian farmer protests 2021

Indian farmer protests 2021

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Indian farmer protests

In 2017, the central government released the Model Farming Acts. However, after a certain period it was found that many of the reforms suggested in the Model Acts enacted by the States were not implemented. A committee consisting of seven chief ministers was constituted in July 2019 to discuss the implementation. Accordingly, the central government of India promulgated three ordinances (or temporary laws) in the first week of June 2020, which dealt with agricultural produce, their sale, hoarding, agricultural marketing and contract farming reforms among other things. These ordinances were introduced in the form of bills and were passed by the Lok Sabha on 15 and 18 September 2020. Later, on 20 September, the Rajya Sabha also passed three bills by 22 September. The President of India gave his assent by signing the bills on 28 September, thus converting them into acts. These acts are as follows:

  1. Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act : “enlarges the scope of farmers’ trade areas to any place of production, collection and aggregation” from selected areas. Allows electronic trading and e-commerce of scheduled farmers. Prohibits State Governments from levying any market fee, cess or levy to farmers, traders and electronic trading platforms for trading of farmers’ produce conducted in the ‘Outside Trading Zone’.


  1. Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act: Creates a framework for contract farming through an agreement between a farmer and a buyer prior to any production or rearing. It provides for a three-tier dispute settlement mechanism: the Conciliation Board, the Sub-Divisional Magistrate and the Appellate Authority.


3.Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act: The Center allows to regulate certain food items during exceptional situations like war or famine. Require that any stock limits on agricultural produce be enforced based on price appreciation